Set Associative Caches
We can look at all the mapping schemes as variations of set associative mapping.
Direct mapping is 1-way set associative and fully associative mapping is m-way set associative (m the number of blocks in the cache).
A cache with sets of 4 blocks to a set is called 4-way set associative.
The advantage of set associative caches is reduced miss rate, the disadvantage is increased hit time